Legal Questions

What is the Scope of the Equal Protection Clause?

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Equal protection is available to all persons, natural as well as juridical. Artificial persons, however, are entitled to the protection only insofar as their property is concerned.

By constitutional reservation, certain rights are enjoyable only by citizens, such as the rights to vote, hold public office, exploit natural resources, and operate public utilities, although aliens are comprehended in the guaranty. Even ordinary statutes can validly distinguish between citizens and aliens or, for that matter, even between or among citizens only.

**Taken from Arsenio Lumiqued vs Apolonio Exevea et al

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