When is a complaint required?

A sworn written complaint is required if the offense is one which cannot be prosecuted de officio, or is private in nature (adultery, concubinage, abduction, seduction, acts of lasciviousness, defamation consisting in the imputation of any of the above offenses), or where it pertains to those cases which need to be endorsed by specific public authorities (Anti-Dummy Board with respect to the Anti-Dummy Law, National Water and Air Pollution Control Commission with respect to the Anti-Pollution Law).